Drakopoulos, Pan: The Way to Unity
1933, May: Night over Europe
In Germany the pro-European associations or groups are proscribed as “pacifists” by Hitler’s regime.
1938: A Gloomy Interval
A few months after the “reunification” of Austria with the German Reich, Count Coudenhove-Kalergi declares: “We prefer to postpone European unification to a later date rather than see it accomplished in the near future under Hitler’s tyranny … . Pan Europa has room for monarchies as well as for republics… what it cannot accept is states which do not recognize human rights.” Two years later, Count landed in New York, a refugee from Hitler’s Europe.
1938, 6 November: The Federal Union
Federal Union is founded in London by Derk Rawnsley and Charles Kimber. Lord Lothian (the founder of The Round Table ), the Archbishop of York, the biologist Julian Huxley, the historian Arnold Toynbee, the military historian Captain B.H. Liddell Hart, and others are among the members of its Advisory Board. Among its supporters there are figures as the apostle of Libertarianism Friedrich Hayek, the conductor Thomas Beecham, Lawrence Olivier, Winston Churchill, Clement Attlee and many others.
The Federal Union declares: “National sovereignty leads to competition in armaments, economic self-sufficiency and internal regimentation, and thus inevitably to war, imperialism, poverty and loss of individual liberty, because where sovereign States fail to agree there is no remedy save resort to violence in the form of power politics or war. No international order based on co-operation between sovereign States will prove either efficient or durable, since all sovereign States in the last resort seek their own national self-interest. Nothing less than a union of the peoples can end this anarchy and give peace, justice and freedom to all. Accordingly we advocate:
“A Federal Union of those nations which hold that the State exists for the freedom and responsibility of man, and that government must be contacted with the consent of the governed”.
1939, 20 October: The Pope Calls for a Supra-national Community
Pope Pius XII in His Encyclical “Summit Pontificatus” (On the unity of human society) calls for a “supranational community” and declares that the “alleged absolute autonomy of the state is in clear contradiction to the natural order.” Moreover, the Pope’s Christmas messages between 1940 and 1944 urged, with mounting insistence, the creation of “supranational institutions whose authority must be real and effective vis-a-vis the member states”. This attitude of the Pope had, as a result, the active role of Catholic intellectuals to federal movements.