Drakopoulos, Pan: The Way to Unity

The Italian Socialist Party (Socialista Italiana), at its first Congress declares in favor of a federation of European nations. Now all Italian parties, except communist, support the plan for a federal Europe.

1945, January 29: The First European Movement in the Netherlands

Dr. Hans-Dieter Salinger, writer of the book The Rebirth of Europe, and the editor of a resistance newspaper Willelm Vergade found the “Action for Europe” (Europeesche Actie). Prof. Henri J Brugmans, a stalwart supporter of the French socialist P.J. Proudhon’s ideas for a federal Europe, takes over the Presidency. Brugmans will be principal of the College d’ Europe in Bruges.

1945, March 22-25: International Conference of Federalists

An International Conference of Federalists is organized in Paris by the French Committee for a European Federation. Albert Camus, then editor of the resistance newspaper Combat, opens the meeting. Among the participants there are: the great personalist philosopher Emmanuel Mounier, editor of Esprit (the leading journal of the Christian Left until today),George Orwell , Altiero Spinelli, and a galaxy of intellectuals, politicians, journalists, trade unionists etc. In their Manifesto, the resistance fighters prodigiously refuse any kind of punishment on the Germans or any “annexation of German territory by other countries” and reject the ideal of the nation state: “the dogma that the nation state is the highest political form of organization for mankind must be swept away”.

1945, July: Churchill advocates the United States of Europe

In an address to the bicameralBelgian Parliament Winston Churchill advocates “the United States of Europe, which will unify this Continent in a manner never known since the fall of the Roman Empire, and within all its peoples may dwell together in prosperity, in justice and in peace”.

1945, October: SPD for a United Europe

Kurt Schumacher, leader of SPD (German Social-Democrat Party) declares in the first Conference of the party at Wennigsen that “the Social-Democrats will fight for a social and economic unity of Europe. We want to see Germany not as a national and independent entity but as a part of a united Europe!”

1945, October 31: CDU for a United Europe

Konrad Adenauer, working for the formation of the German Christian Democratic Union (CDU), advocates a unity of the Western Europe. In a number of speeches made during the Occupation, Adenauer argued for the “organic solution” often using the term United States of Europe. Thus, after Italy, we see a consensus in favor to United Europe in Germany too.

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