Schilling, Heinz: Confessional Europe

53. Treated in more detail by Heinz Schilling, “Nationale Identitaet und Konfession in der europaeischen Neuzeit,” in Nationale und kulturelle Identitaet. Studien zur Entwicklung des kollektiven Bewusstseins in der Neuzeit, ed. Bernhard Giessen (Frankfurt am Main, 1991) 192-252.

54. Helmuth Plessner, Die verspaetete Nation (Frankfurt am Main, 1974 [1957]).

55. Klaus Malettke, “Richelieus Aussenpolitik und sein Projekt kollektive Sicherheit,” in Kontinuitaet und Wandel in der Staatenordnung der Neuzeit, ed. Peter Krueger (Marburg,1991), 47-68,esp.50ff.

56. Bernard Vogler, “La dimension religieuse dans les relations internationales en Europe au 17e siecle (1618-1721), in Histoire, economie et societe (1991): 379-98. See also Johannes Burkhardt, Abschied vom Religionskrieg, (Tuebingen, 1985).

57. Schilling (1993c), 592, with references in notes 3-4

58. For South America one must note not only religious syncretism but also modern “liberation theology.” See Heinrich Lutz, Dreissig Jahre nach Guardinis ‘Ende der Neuzeit’: Fuer ein Einbringen unserer kulturkritischen Tradition in heutige globale Pespektiven,” in Festschrift fuer Wilhelm Messerer zum 60. Geburtstag (Cologne, 1980), 383-97; Reinhard (1989); Alain Milhou, Minako Debergh, and Claudia von Collani, in Venard (1992), part II, chaps. 7-9.

59. Winfried Schulze, “Gerhard Oestreichs Begriff ‘Sozialdisziplinierung in der Frueen Neuzeit.'” ZHF 14 (1987): 265-302.

60. Heinz Schilling, “‘History of Crime’ or ‘History of Sin?'” in Politics and Society in Reformation Europe, ed. E.J. Kouri and Tom Scott, (London, 1987), 289-310.

61. Schaer (1985); Peter Hersche, “Die protestantische Laus und der katholische Floh. Konfessionspezifische Aspekte der Hygiene,” Ansichten von der rechten Ordnung, ed. Benedikt Bietenhard (Bern, 1991),43-60.

62. Chattellier (1987), 127,151. “Christianisme modern” is my coinage, based on his “catholicisme moderne.”

63. Wunder (1992), 67, a fundamental work; Merry E. Wiesner, “Beyond Women and the Family: Towards A Gender Analysis of the Reformation,” SCJ 18 (1987): 311-21; Opitz (1993).

64. Chatellier (1987), 163.

65. Merry E. Wiesner, Working Women in Renaissance Germany, (New Brunswick, N.J., 1986), esp. 149-98; Heide Wunder, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 12-26, and (1992); Susan C. Karant-Nunn, in Marshall (1989), 29-47, esp. 42f.

66. Dagmar Lorenz, “Vom Kloster zur Kueche: Die Frau vor und nach der Reformation Dr. Martin Luthers, in Die Frau von der Reformation zur Romantik, ed. Barbara Becker-Cantarino (Bonn, 1985) 7-35; Susan C. Karant-Nunn, in Fix and Karant-Nunn (1992), 121-40, at 121; Mary Wiesner, in Obelkevich, et al. (1987), 295-308.

67. Gerta Scharffenorth, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 97-108, at 106f.

68. Thus in the Canones (V, para. 10f.) of the Dutch and Low German Calvinists at Wesel. J.F.G. Goeters, ed.. Die Beschluesse des Wesler Konvents (Duesseldorf 1968),15.

69. Roper (1989), 256, 265.

70. Luise Schorn-Schuette, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 109-53.

71. Mary Wiesner, in Fix and Karant-Nunn (1992), 192ff.

72 Westphal (1994), 345, a rare investigation of the gender-specific consequences of confessionalization.

73. Schilling (1991), 62-63. and (1993a). See Robert M.Kingdon in Handbook of European History 1400-1600, Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation. vol. 2: 229-47.

74. Roper (1989), 263. See Marshall (1989)

75. Anne Conrad, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 156.

76. Hoerger (1975), 273, 297, 307f.; Hans Duenninger, Maria siegt in Franken. Die Wallfahrt Dettelbach als Bekenntnis (Wuerzburg,1979).

77 Chatellier (1987), 163.

78. Anne Conrad, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 178. Gertha Scharffenorth (ibid., 107) argues that Luther’s favorable remarks on women were omitted from New High German editions of his tract on marriage as “obsolete.” See also Hoerger (1975), 307ff.

79. Rabb (1975).

80. Details by Schilling (1988), 293ff. I know of no larger, interconfessional study, though helpful are: Werner Hofmann, ed. Luther und die Folgen fuer die Kunst (Munich, 1983); Jan Knipping, Iconography of the Counter Reformation in the Netherlands (Nieuwkoop, 1974); Emile Male. L’ Art religieux de la fin du 16e siecle du 17e siecle. Etude sur l’ iconographie apres le concile de Trente, 2d ed. (Paris, 1951); Sibylle Ebert-Schifferer, ed., Guido Reni und Europa. Ruhm und Nachruhm. Katalog Ausstellung Schirn (Frankfurt a.M., 1988).

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