Schilling, Heinz: Confessional Europe

67. Gerta Scharffenorth, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 97-108, at 106f.

68. Thus in the Canones (V, para. 10f.) of the Dutch and Low German Calvinists at Wesel. J.F.G. Goeters, ed.. Die Beschluesse des Wesler Konvents (Duesseldorf 1968),15.

69. Roper (1989), 256, 265.

70. Luise Schorn-Schuette, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 109-53.

71. Mary Wiesner, in Fix and Karant-Nunn (1992), 192ff.

72 Westphal (1994), 345, a rare investigation of the gender-specific consequences of confessionalization.

73. Schilling (1991), 62-63. and (1993a). See Robert M.Kingdon in Handbook of European History 1400-1600, Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation. vol. 2: 229-47.

74. Roper (1989), 263. See Marshall (1989)

75. Anne Conrad, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 156.

76. Hoerger (1975), 273, 297, 307f.; Hans Duenninger, Maria siegt in Franken. Die Wallfahrt Dettelbach als Bekenntnis (Wuerzburg,1979).

77 Chatellier (1987), 163.

78. Anne Conrad, in Wunder and Vanja (1991), 178. Gertha Scharffenorth (ibid., 107) argues that Luther’s favorable remarks on women were omitted from New High German editions of his tract on marriage as “obsolete.” See also Hoerger (1975), 307ff.

79. Rabb (1975).

80. Details by Schilling (1988), 293ff. I know of no larger, interconfessional study, though helpful are: Werner Hofmann, ed. Luther und die Folgen fuer die Kunst (Munich, 1983); Jan Knipping, Iconography of the Counter Reformation in the Netherlands (Nieuwkoop, 1974); Emile Male. L’ Art religieux de la fin du 16e siecle du 17e siecle. Etude sur l’ iconographie apres le concile de Trente, 2d ed. (Paris, 1951); Sibylle Ebert-Schifferer, ed., Guido Reni und Europa. Ruhm und Nachruhm. Katalog Ausstellung Schirn (Frankfurt a.M., 1988).

81. Valentin (1980); Breuer (1979).

82. Conrad Wiedemann, in Breuer, et al. (1994); Hoerger (1975).

83. A coinage analogous to Gerhard Oestreich’s “das Nichtabsolutistische am Absolutismus.”

84. Helmholz (1992). On Imperial law, fundamental is Martin Heckel, Gesammelte Schriften, 2 vols (Tuebingen, 1989). See also Michael Stolleis, in Breuer, et al.(1994).

85. Werner von Koppenfels, in Breuer, et al. (1994).

86. Winfried Schulze, “Vom Gemeinnutz zum Eigennutz” (note 5 above), and “Staendische Gesellschaft und Individualrechte,” in Grund-und Freiheitsrechte von der staendischen zur spaetbbuergerlichen Gesellschaft, ed. Guenter Birtsch (Goettingen, 1987), 161-79. The notion of “self-interest” occurs first around 1600 in those societies -Holland and later England- which had been least shaped by confessionalism. See Heinz Schilling, “Der libertaer-radikale Republikanismus der hollaendischen Regenten,” GG 10 (1984): 498-533, here at 528-33; Albert Hirschman, The Passions and the Interests (Princeton, 1977).

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