Havel, Vaclav: Europe as task
by Vaclav Havel, President of the Czech Republic
An Address in Aachen on May 15, 1996. Full text, Published by permission
I RECENTLY tried to ascertain where Europe’s name came from. I was somewhat surprised to find that its many see its primeval roots in the Akkadian world ‘erebu’ which means twilight or sunset. Asia, on the other hand, is believed to have derived its name from Akkadian ‘asu’, meaning daybreak.
At first sight this discovery does not appear very encouraging; the word twilight has been traditionally linked in our minds with the notions of end, extinction, defeat, ruin or approaching death. In certain respects, this conventional linkage is valid: twilight indeed brings with it the end of something, at least the end of one day and the hustle and bustle that filled it. But it does not mean defeat, doom or the end of time. Far from it: it is just a punctuation mark in the eternal cycle of nature and life in which something ends simply so that something else may begin. For a human being, this means, for instance, that the time of labour that is external, largely physical and directed toward the world around comes to an end, to be replaced by a time of quiet contemplation, of reflection, evaluation, introspection, of endeavor that is directed inward. From time immemorial it has been in the evening that people would reflect on what they have done during the preceding day and on the meaning these efforts may have had and pause to look at things in perspective, to regain their strength and to make resolutions for the following day. In somewhat simplified terms, one may say that while dawn and broad daylight are the time of hands, twilight is the time of the mind.
The rather gloomy associations we tend to attach to the word twilight may be the fruit of a typically modern cult of beginnings and starts, progress and growth, inventions, rises and advancements, of a cult of industriousness, outward activity, expansion and energy, that is, of the typically modern blind faith in quantitative indices. Dawn, daybreak, sunrise, ‘the morning of nations’ and similar words, metaphors or phrases are popular these days, while sunset, quiet, pause or nightfall evoke in us unjustly only connotations of stagnation, decline, disintegration or nothingness.
We are unfair to twilight. We are unfair to the phenomenon that possibly gave our continent its name.